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PRM 406 -Program Design and Evaluation in Therapeutic Recreation: Home

Learn how to construct a search statement and find articles on a specific population and service setting.

Instructional Objectives

Students will:

  • define peer-reviewed, primary, and review articles.
  • know at least one source for searching for clinical guidelines
  • recognize, find, and cite at least one source for their population and service setting.
  • understand how to construct a search statement based on their population and service setting.
  • know how to limit a search for targeted retrieval.
  • understand how to access controlled vocabulary in search engines to get the most focused and accurate retrieval.
  • have some resources for creating posters                                 

Evidence-Based Practice

National Guideline Clearinghouse  
The NGC mission is to provide physicians and other health professionals, health care providers, health plans, integrated delivery systems, purchasers, and others an accessible mechanism for obtaining objective, detailed information on clinical practice guidelines and to further their dissemination, implementation, and use.

Best Practice Guidelines 
Best Practice Guidelines developed by Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO) as part of their nursing best practice guidelines project begun in 1999

RCN Clinical Guidelines  

Practice guidelines from the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) in the United Kingdom

Limited Examples in Recreation Therapy Literature

The authors of a paper titled "Introduction to Evidence Based Recreation Therapy" say the following:

There are limited examples of evidence-based intervention studies in the recreation therapy literature (Carruthers & Hood, 2002; Fitzsimmons & Buettner, 2003, Kolanowski, Litaker, & Buetnner, 2005; etc, and many more are needed.  Another challenge to an evidence-based practice approach for recreation therapy is the lack of research evidence about the effectiveness of specific recreation therapy interventions for particular conditions or diseases.

Because of this fact, you may need to think of synonyms for "recreation therapy" like "play therapy" or "exercise therapy" in order to find articles or guidelines on the topic.

Buetther, L & Fitzissions, S. (2007) Introduction to evidence based recreation therapy. Annual in Therapeutic Recreation. 15, 12-17.

Basics of APA Style

The Basics of APA Style (online tutorial via the American Psycological Assocation website)

Citation Styles Library Guide - APA Style tab (APA Style handbook and information)

RefWorks and Write'n'Cite

RefWorks How To Library Guide 

The RefWorks How To Library Guide includes links to Tutorial on using RefWorks and Write-n-Cite, instructions to download Write-n-Cite, and the incredibly useful 'Importing from Databases' tab with instructions on how to import references from many databases available through ASU Libraries, including PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and more.

RefWorks and Write'n'Cite Instructions - PDF

This PDF document includes step by step instructions and screen shots on the 'quick' way to use Write-n-Cite for in-text citation and bibliography creation from a completed document.

RefWorks and Write'n'Cite - Tutorials and further info - PDF

This PDF document is a workshop handout.  It includes brief instructions on how to do many things in RefWorks and Write'n'Cite, with links to RefWorks tutorials.  It's an overview of many most used features.  **Want a workshop for a group within your class, or on your own?  Contact Virginia Pannabecker - Contact info on Right-hand side of this Course Guide.

How to use this Course Guide

Hello and Welcome to the PRM 406 Course Guide!  Explore the resources on this guide tailored to your course assignments and research needs.  Have suggestions for this guide?  Let us know by contacting one of the Health Sciences Librarian, your Recreation Librarian, or via the Feedback Survey on the bottom right of this page.

If you have questions, please feel free to contact us!

This Guide includes:


Get help online from a reference librarian via email or live 24/7 chat.


Helpful Databases for this Course

PubMed includes all of Medline plus general science, chemistry and databases for the biomedical researcher.

CINAHL is a great database for novice searchers though much of the content is geared toward the discipline of Nursing.  It includes the full text of many nursing articles, but also "relevant materials from biomedicine, management, behavioral sciences, education, & consumer health."

A search in Cochrane Library may simplify your research if you are looking for a systematic review or a randomized controlled trial.  They are grouped together in this database and thus are easier to find . 

National Guidelines Clearinghouse (NGC) "NGC is a public resource for evidence-based clinical practice guidelines."

Other Databases to consider:

Physical Education Index includes journal citations on topics such as: biomechanics, kinesiology, coaching, curriculum, dance, health, history, law, measurement-evaluation, motor learning, patents pertaining to sporting goods and exercise equipment, perception, philosophy, physical education, physcial fitness, physical therapy, recreation, research, sports activities, sports psychology, sport sociology, sports, sports medicine, teaching methods, and training

SPORTDiscus includes citations and abstracts covering all areas of sport, physical fitness, exercise, sports medicine, physical education & training.  Full-text contains content from books, book chapters, conference proceedings, and journal and magazine articles.

PsycINFO provides access to international literature in psychology and related disciplines.

Recreation Programs

ERIC (via ProQuest) is the premier U.S. database of education literature.  Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education.  Includes journal (EJ) and ERIC Document (ED) citations with abstracts; full text of ERIC Documents from 1993 to present.

Leisure Tourism Database includes worldwide information for all those interested in the research and strategic development of leisure, recreation, sport, tourism, ecotourism, and hospitality activities, facilities, facilities products and services. 

What are Primary/Empirical Research Articles?

Research scholars write on topics they study as a means of reporting results they discover in their research.

Primary/empirical research articles are...

  • written by scholars to offer evidence based on their own observations to support a hypothesis, argument or claim;
  • based on analyses of qualitative or quantitative evidence, not opinion;
  • published in scholarly journals, not magazines;
  • written by scholars to be read by scholars, not by journalists to be read by a general audience.

What is a Review Article?

In a review article, the author has gathered and summarized relevant research on a topic. This is done in a focused way, to support the topic reviewed. Review articles are characterized by:

  • Lots of references to other articles within the article
  • A lengthy bibliography
  • An overview or summary of a topic

Tutorials on: Primary/Empirical Research Articles and Peer-Reviewed Sources

Still unclear about what a primary research article is? -- view this tutorial on Empirical/Primary Articles

Know what  peer-reviewed or refereed means?  --view this tutorial on Peer Reviewed Articles

Poster Resources

1) Poster Session Preparationdeg farrelly's How-To Library Guide for the ASU Community

2) 'Free to use/adapt' - Images with Creative Commons licenses allowing for free use for educational purposes

Click the Creative Commons Search link below and type a keyword in the search box to find photos and images via Flickr, Google Images, and other sources, with filters for content that has a Creative Commons license for re-use, adaptation, or other purposes (you still need to cite your source though, if you use these in your presentation, to give attribution (credit) to the photo/image creator):

Creative Commons Search


How to cite an online image in APA style:

General Format

If Author is given:

Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrieved Month Day, Year, from: URL (address of website)

If no Author:

Title of work [Type of work]. (Year image was created). Retrieved Month Day, Year, from: URL (address of website)

Flickr photo example*:

Deal, P. (Photographer). (2011). Nurse [digital photograph], Retrieved September 6, 2012, from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/armymedicine/5710329658 

*In this example of a Flickr photo citation, the photographer's name is given in the caption - if it were not given, I would use the name of the person/group who posted the photo as the author if they took the photo, but if there is any question, use the example for the general 'No Author' format above.

Open Clip Art image example:

bedpanner. (Artist). (2012). Enrolled scrub nurse [digital image], Retrieved September 6, 2012, from: http://openclipart.org/detail/168580/enrolled-scrub-nurse-by-bedpanner

Open Clip Art image example - done as though no author given (since the official name of the artist is not given):

Enrolled scrub nurse [digital image]. (2012). Retrieved September 6, 2012, from: http://openclipart.org/detail/168580/enrolled-scrub-nurse-by-bedpanner

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