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Acquire Evidence - Search the Literature
Appraise the Evidence
Example PICO Statements from CINAHL Evidence based practice care sheets:
1. In the elderly at risk of falling, is tai chi effective in reducing the risk and preventing falls as compared with those who do not practice tai chi?
2. Are alcohol based hand rubs more effective or less effective in reducing HRI's than soap and water techniques?
3. Is peer-pressure more effective than educational interventions in improving hand hygiene practices?
4. Are PPI's (proton pump inhibitors) effective medical therapy for esophagitis and GERD in children and adolescents?
5. In older adults with wandering, is music therapy or exercise/activities more effective in decreasing wandering/pacing?
Evidence-based Nursing Links to resources, articles, tools and other information on evidence-based nursing compiled by the Health Sciences Library at the University of North Carolina.
Evidence-based Medicine List of resources compiled by librarians at Tompkins-McCaw Library at Virginia Commonwealth University.
I. Systematic reviews or meta-analyses of RCTs
II. Well-designed RCTs
III. Well-designed, controlled trials without randomization
IV. Well-designed cohort and case-control studies
V. Systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative studies
VI. Descriptive and qualitative studies
VII. Expert consensus reports
Source: Melnyk, B.M. & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: A guide to best practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC)
A public resource for evidence-based clinical practice guidelines
Best Practice Guidelines
Best Practice Guidelines developed by Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO) as part of their nursing best practice guidelines project begun in 1999
RCN Clinical Guidelines
Practice guidelines from the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) in the United Kingdom