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Speech and Hearing Sciences  

The scientific field of human communication;providing clinical services in speech-language pathology and audiology.
Last Updated: Oct 19, 2012 URL: http://libguides.asu.edu/content.php?pid=31721 Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

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Formulating a PICO Question

 Duke University | Tutorial | PICO |  http://www.hsl.unc.edu/services/tutorials/ebm/Question.htm

P = Population integrated into topic of interest, i.e.  

I = Intervention

C = Comparison

O = Outcome

Sample PICO Question

 In specific language impaired children is shared book reading effective in reducing weaknesses in phonological awareness as compared with no shared book reading.

Select desired citations and send to RefWorks' folders.

http://lib.asu.edu/help/refworksExportImport

 

PubMed Search

 Enter terms for  INTERVENTION  as they appear below.

 shared [ti] reading [ti]

The effect of shared book reading on the acquisition of expressive vocabulary of a 7 year old who uses AAC. Soto G, Dukhovny E., Semin Speech Lang. 2008 May;29(2):133-45.

 

Identify the controlled vocabulary assigned to the article by clicking on highlighted article title and scrolling down to Publication Types, MeSH Terms. Below find the MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) applied to the above cited article.

MeSH Terms:

 

Select desired citations and send to RefWorks' folders.

http://lib.asu.edu/help/refworksExportImport

 

CINAHL Search

Uncheck box  "Suggest Subject Term" to perform a keyword search.  Recheck the box to identify and search using CINAHL's controlled vocabulary.

Enter Intervention terms to be searched in the title | 

shared (change drop down menu to Title) | reading (chance drop down menu to Title)

Language impairment, parent-child shared reading, and phonological awareness: a feasibility study. (includes abstract); Justice LM; Kaderavek J; Bowles R; Grimm K; Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 2005 Fall; 25 (3): 143-56

 

Open up to broader search by changing drop down menu to "Select a Field"

 

Select desired citations and send to RefWorks' folders.

http://lib.asu.edu/help/refworksExportImport

 

PsycINFO Search

Enter search terms for INTERVENTION (PICO)

shared | Change drop down menu  to TITLE

reading | Change drop down  menu to TITLE

Narrow search further by searching the Population w/Topic of Interest in the Title, too. See following example.

impairment | Change drop down menu to TITLE

Note that PsycINFO offers controlled vocabulary (called Descriptors) for Specific Language Impairment | Click on highlighted link at  left of citattion and at upper left,  select "Search History". Combine search sets that will retrieve the most relevant articles.

 

Select desired citations and send to RefWorks' folders.

http://lib.asu.edu/help/refworksExportImport

 

ERIC Search

Enter search terms for INTERVENTION

shared \ Change drop down menu to TITLE

reading \ Change drop down menu to TITLE

Broaden title search for terms "shared" and "reading" by changing the drop down menu to ANYWHERE

Select desired citations and send to RefWorks' folders.

http://lib.asu.edu/help/refworksExportImport

 

Cochrane Search

Enter search terms for INTERVENTION

shared | Change drop down menu to TITLE, ABSTRACTS, KEYWORDS.

reader| Change drop down menut to TITLE, ABSTRACTS, KEYWORDS

Select desired citations and send to RefWorks' folders.

http://lib.asu.edu/help/refworksExportImport

 

 

Web of Science Search

Enter search terms for INTERVENTION (PICO)

shared | Change drop down menu to TITLE

reading | Change drop down menu to TITLE

impairment | Change drop down menu to TITLE

Broaden search by changing the drop down menu to TOPIC, one at a time and in various combinations

 

Select desired citations and send to RefWorks' folders.

http://lib.asu.edu/help/refworksExportImport

 

Academic Search Premier Search

  Enter search terms for INTERVENTION (PICO)

shared | Change drop down menu to TITLE

reading | Change drop down menu to TITLE

impairment | Change drop down menu to TITLE

Broaden search by changing the drop down menu to TOPIC, one at a time and in various combinations

Select desired citations and send to RefWorks' folders.

http://lib.asu.edu/help/refworksExportImport

 

Google Scholar Search

Search Google Scholar within ASU Libraries site to access full-text journals paid for by libraries.

At left of search box, select Google Preferences, scroll down to bottom, change drop down menu to RefWorks, see following image.

.        Click save preferences.

At left of search box, select Advanced Scholar Search

At   all of the words  search box enter    shared reading impairment SLI

At   with the exact phrase  search box enter   shared reading

At   return articles published between   search box enter   2000 - 2010

Select desired citations and send to RefWorks' folders.

http://lib.asu.edu/help/refworksExportImport

 

Foundation Resources/Services/Search Strategies

Speech and Hearing Science | Research Methods | 500

 

Sheila.hofstetter@asu.edu | Health Sciences Librarian, Tempe and Polytechnic campuses

 

Begin search at http://lib.asu.edu

 

Search databases within library page to link out to full-text journals paid for by ASU Libraries or you will be linked to publisher sites that charge you for full-text access to desired journals.

 

Ask a Librarian  An evidence based practitioner uses time wisely. Ask for help.

 

Sign up for Interlibrary Loan | A researcher accesses all of the best evidence from around the world by using the free library service that obtains electronic copies of articles and books from other libraries.

 

Sign up for RefWorks, create folders, and organize citations for quick access to pertinent references and for creating quick citations. Folder names – BIB, MISC, PICO TOPICS/DATABASES, LEVELS OF EVIDENCE, BACKGROUND

 

PICO | Population integrated into topic of interest | Intervention | Comparison with another intervention or no intervention | Outcome measurement of effectiveness of intervention(s)

 

PICO Question

 In specific language impaired children is shared book reading effective in reducing weaknesses in phonological awareness as compared with no shared book reading.

 

Search the following databases in sequence | Use advanced search

 

PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, (ERIC), Cochrane, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Academic Search Premier

 

Strategy #1 Snap Shot Search Strategy| Quick look into database retrieving articles with your Population & Intervention in title.  Identify and list all synonyms and coined phrases used by authors to identify Intervention.

 

Strategy #2 Rigorous Systematic Search Strategy | Identify and integrate controlled vocabulary, synonyms, and researchers language into search strategy. Systematically search specific databases in the same sequence.

 

Refworks  | Organize retrieved citations for quick access and record of retrieved best evidence Send retrieved citations into RefWorks’ folders already created to support assignment, paper, research.

 

Refworks' guide for importing/exporting from ASU databases

 

 

PUbMed Search History

 

Research Methodologies in PubMed

PubMed MESH for research methodologies 

Past the   term [mh]  OR  term [pt]   into PubMed search box

Prospective Studies [mh]    

Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

Retrospective Studies [mh] 

Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons. 

Cross-Sectional Studies  [mh]  

Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time. 

Longitudinal Studies [mh]

Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

Qualitative Research [mh]

Research that derives data from observation, interviews, or verbal interactions and focuses on the meanings and interpretations of the participants.

 

Quantatitative Studies

a   Case Reports [mh]

Clinical presentations that may be followed by evaluative studies that eventually lead to a diagnosis.

aa Case Control Studies [mh]

Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

b  Cohort Studies [mh]

Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

c   Clinical Trials [pt]

Work that is the report of a pre-planned clinical study of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in humans selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. While most clinical trials concern humans, this publication type may be used for clinical veterinary articles meeting the requisites for humans. (PubMed LIMIT)

cc Randomized Controlled Trials [pt]          

Work consisting of a clinical trial that involves at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.  (PubMed LIMIT)

ccc Controlled Clinical Trials [pt]

Work consisting of a clinical trial involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicine, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trial is characterized as a RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL   (PubMed LIMIT)

d  Epidemiologic Studies [mh]

Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.

e  Meta-analysis [pt]

Works consisting of studies using a quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc. It is often an overview of clinical trials. It is usually called a meta-analysis by the author or sponsoring body and should be differentiated from reviews of literature.  (PubMed LIMIT)

 

Additional PubMed MESH for studies

Multicenter Study [pt]

Controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children. (PedMed LIMIT)

Evaluation Study [pt] 

Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available. (PubMed LIMIT)

Validation Study [pt]

Works consisting of research using processes by which the reliability and relevance of a procedure for a specific purpose are established. (PubMed LIMIT)

 

Seconary Resources

Meta-analysis [pt]

Works consisting of studies using a quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc. It is often an overview of clinical trials. It is usually called a meta-analysis by the author or sponsoring body and should be differentiated from reviews of literature.  (PubMed LIMIT)

Systematic Reviews      (enter  search as follows)      systematic [sb]   

 

     

Cochrane Handbook  |  1.2.2  What is a systematic review?

A systematic review attempts to collate all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria in order to answer a specific research question.  It  uses explicit, systematic methods that are selected with a view to minimizing bias, thus providing more reliable findings from which conclusions can be drawn and decisions made (Antman 1992, Oxman 1993). The key characteristics of a systematic review are:

  • a clearly stated set of objectives with pre-defined eligibility criteria for studies;

  • an explicit, reproducible methodology;

  • a systematic search that attempts to identify all studies that would meet the eligibility criteria;

  • an assessment of the validity of the findings of the included studies, for example through the assessment of risk of bias; and

  • a systematic presentation, and synthesis, of the characteristics and findings of the included studies.

Many systematic reviews contain meta-analyses. Meta-analysis is the use of statistical methods to summarize the results of independent studies (Glass 1976). By combining information from all relevant studies, meta-analyses can provide more precise estimates of the effects of health care than those derived from the individual studies included within a review (see Chapter 9, Section 9.1.3). They also facilitate investigations of the consistency of evidence across studies, and the exploration of differences across studies.

PubMed http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/pubmed_subsets/sysreviews_strategy.html

Review [pt]

An article or book published after examination of published material on a subject. It may be comprehensive to various degrees and the time range of material scrutinized may be broad or narrow, but the reviews most often desired are reviews of the current literature. The textual material examined may be equally broad and can encompass, in medicine specifically, clinical material as well as experimental research or case reports. State-of-the-art reviews tend to address more current matters. A review of the literature must be differentiated from HISTORICAL ARTICLE on the same subject, but a review of historical literature is also within the scope of this publication type.

 

 

 

 

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