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ASU 101: Health Innovation: In-Class Links

In-Class Library Session Handout

What is PICO?

P = Population (participants, problem, process, point of view, primary event)

I = Intervention (therapy, treatment, causes or etiology, improvement, interpretation, impact)

C = Comparison (Opposing arguments)

O = Outcome (measurement)

How to Use This Guide

This guide is intended to help students in ASU 101 who are working on their Health Innovation Exhibition Poster.


C - Currency

R - Relevance

A - Authority

A - Accuracy

P - Purpose

Worksheet: http://www.juniata.edu/services/library/instruction/handouts/craap_worksheet.pdf


The Role of the 5 Ws

Who, What, When, Where, Why (and How)


 Background reading allows the researcher to fill in most of the basic questions: Who, What, When and Where

That leaves Why and How

Researchers in most fields are looking for one of two things:

  • A cause for a problem (Why) or
  • a solution to a problem (How).

The Why or the How then becomes the I element of the PICO formula.


The P element of the PICO formula is typically the Who or the What

In most disciplines, searching on terms related to the P and the I results in articles that will answer the other questions.


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Kevin Pardon
411 N. Central Ave., Downtown Phoenix campus Library


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Janice Hermer
411 N Central Ave, Downtown campus Library

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