by Achille Devéria - http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portraitLarge/mw150782/Ann-Zingha Public Domain
The arrival of a slave ship carrying approximately 20 people, Africans from Angola, in August of 1619 to a port near Jamestown, Virginia marks the beginning of chattel slavery in what would become the United States. The enslaved Africans were likely forced to work the tobacco fields in the English Colony of Virginia (Elliott and Hughes, 2019).
Slavery has shaped and formed everyday American life. The 1619 Project by the New York Times Magazine explores the lingering effects. Resources from and within The 1619 Project are listed below:
The Idea of America, by Nikole Hannah-Jones
Capitalism, by Matthew Desmond
A Broken Health Care System, by Jeneen Interlandi
Traffic, by Kevin M. Kruse
Undemocratic Democracy, by Jamelle Bouie
Medical Inequality, by Linda Villarosa
American Popular Music, by Wesley Morris
Sugar, by Khalil Gibran Muhammad
Mass Incarceration, by Bryan Stevenson
The Wealth Gap, by Trymaine Lee
Hope, a Photo Essay, by Djeneba Aduayom
Why Can’t We Teach This? by Nikita Stewart (2019)
A Brief History of Slavery, by Mary Elliott and Jazmine Hughes (2019)
NPR (August 22, 2019). The 1619 Project. 1A. Interviews.
Smithsonian National Museum of African American History & Culture. https://nmaahc.si.edu/
Image: U.S. Department of State
On June 19, 1865, word reached over 250,000 enslaved black people in Texas that the Emancipation Proclamation had been signed by Abraham Lincoln more than two and half years earlier and that they were granted freedom. Union Gen. Gordon Granger arrived in Galveston, Texas, on June 19, 1865 and read General Order Number 3 from various locations. General Order Number 3 stated that all enslaved persons were free and had absolute equality of personal rights. Juneteenth is celebrated as an annual holiday commemorating the end of slavery in the United States.
Ellis, N. (2020). What Juneteenth tells us about the value of black life in America. The Washington Post.
Taylor, D. B. (June 19, 2020). So you want to learn about Juneteenth? The New York Times.
Galveston Historical Foundation (2020). Juneteenth and General Order No. 3.
The post-Civil War Reconstruction was a period when the nation attempted to reunify and realize equality for African Americans during the years 1863 - 1877.
White mobs destroy Black Wall Street in Tulsa, OK 1921.
Redlining was the practice of drawing red lines on maps around predominately black neighborhoods. Between 1933 and 1977, the government-sponsored Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC) used them to avoid investment in these neighborhoods. The evidence of this practice is documented by the Mapping Inequality project at the University of Richmond. Digitized scans of the HOLC redlining maps are held in the National Archives. Below is a redlining map of Phoenix.