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Exercise and Wellness: RESEARCH articles = Primary Resources

A guide to research and resources in health promotion, healthy lifestyles, wellness, and sport science.

Primary and Secondary Sources

Primary and secondary sources | Ithaca College Library

http://www.ithacalibrary.com/sp/subjects/primary

Scholarly vs. Popular vs. Trade Publications

 Scholarly, Popular, and Trade Publications  |  Compares and contrasts publication types | North Carolina State University

 

ASU Tutorial

Popular Magazines vs. Trade Magazines vs. Scholarly Journals | ASU Library, a voice over tutorial | http://www.asu.edu/lib/tutorials/article-types/

Research Methodologies in PubMed

PubMed MESH for research methodologies 

Past the   term [mh]  OR  term [pt]   into PubMed search box

Prospective Studies [mh]    

Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

Retrospective Studies [mh] 

Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons. 

Cross-Sectional Studies  [mh]  

Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time. 

Longitudinal Studies [mh]

Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

Qualitative Research [mh]

Research that derives data from observation, interviews, or verbal interactions and focuses on the meanings and interpretations of the participants.

 

Quantatitative Studies

a   Case Reports [mh]

Clinical presentations that may be followed by evaluative studies that eventually lead to a diagnosis.

aa Case Control Studies [mh]

Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

b  Cohort Studies [mh]

Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

c   Clinical Trials [pt]

Work that is the report of a pre-planned clinical study of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in humans selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. While most clinical trials concern humans, this publication type may be used for clinical veterinary articles meeting the requisites for humans. (PubMed LIMIT)

cc Randomized Controlled Trials [pt]          

Work consisting of a clinical trial that involves at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.  (PubMed LIMIT)

ccc Controlled Clinical Trials [pt]

Work consisting of a clinical trial involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicine, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trial is characterized as a RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL   (PubMed LIMIT)

d  Epidemiologic Studies [mh]

Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.

e  Meta-analysis [pt]

Works consisting of studies using a quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc. It is often an overview of clinical trials. It is usually called a meta-analysis by the author or sponsoring body and should be differentiated from reviews of literature.  (PubMed LIMIT)

 

Additional PubMed MESH for studies

Multicenter Study [pt]

Controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children. (PedMed LIMIT)

Evaluation Study [pt] 

Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available. (PubMed LIMIT)

Validation Study [pt]

Works consisting of research using processes by which the reliability and relevance of a procedure for a specific purpose are established. (PubMed LIMIT)

 

Seconary Resources

Meta-analysis [pt]

Works consisting of studies using a quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc. It is often an overview of clinical trials. It is usually called a meta-analysis by the author or sponsoring body and should be differentiated from reviews of literature.  (PubMed LIMIT)

Systematic Reviews      (enter  search as follows)      systematic [sb]   

 

     

Cochrane Handbook  |  1.2.2  What is a systematic review?

A systematic review attempts to collate all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria in order to answer a specific research question.  It  uses explicit, systematic methods that are selected with a view to minimizing bias, thus providing more reliable findings from which conclusions can be drawn and decisions made (Antman 1992, Oxman 1993). The key characteristics of a systematic review are:

  • a clearly stated set of objectives with pre-defined eligibility criteria for studies;

  • an explicit, reproducible methodology;

  • a systematic search that attempts to identify all studies that would meet the eligibility criteria;

  • an assessment of the validity of the findings of the included studies, for example through the assessment of risk of bias; and

  • a systematic presentation, and synthesis, of the characteristics and findings of the included studies.

Many systematic reviews contain meta-analyses. Meta-analysis is the use of statistical methods to summarize the results of independent studies (Glass 1976). By combining information from all relevant studies, meta-analyses can provide more precise estimates of the effects of health care than those derived from the individual studies included within a review (see Chapter 9, Section 9.1.3). They also facilitate investigations of the consistency of evidence across studies, and the exploration of differences across studies.

PubMed http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/pubmed_subsets/sysreviews_strategy.html

Review [pt]

An article or book published after examination of published material on a subject. It may be comprehensive to various degrees and the time range of material scrutinized may be broad or narrow, but the reviews most often desired are reviews of the current literature. The textual material examined may be equally broad and can encompass, in medicine specifically, clinical material as well as experimental research or case reports. State-of-the-art reviews tend to address more current matters. A review of the literature must be differentiated from HISTORICAL ARTICLE on the same subject, but a review of historical literature is also within the scope of this publication type.

 

 

 

 

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