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NTR 290 - Evidence Based Nutrition

Relevant resources for Evidence-Based Nutrition gathered in one location

Digital Media Citations

Basic Rules for Citing Electronic Media:

  • Include the same elements, in the same order, as you would for a reference to a print source.
  • When a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, include the DOI instead of the URL in the reference.
  • If DOI is unavailable, provide closest permanent URL of a source-direct readers as closely as possible to the source you used (main page).
  • Provide retrieval date if the source is likely to be updated or changed. (example: prepupblication manuscript, or a wiki).
  • Do NOT use a period at the end of a web address
  • URLs should NOT be 'live' in not underline.
  • Test URLs

Example of an Electronic book:

O'Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism and the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from

Example of a Book chapter:

Mitchell, H. W. (1913). Alcoholism and the alcoholic psychoses. In W. A. White & S. E. Jelliffee
       (Eds.), The modern treatment of nervous and mental diseases (Vol. 1, pp. 287-330). Retrieved 
       from PsycBOOKS database.

Note: The database name is included to aid readers in finding an electronic version of the book because it may be difficult to find elsewhere, regardless of format.

Example of a Reference to a Web Site:

Poland, D. (1998, October 26). The hot button. Roughcut. Retrieved October 28, 1998, from

Example of a Journal article with  DOI assigned:

Stultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment. American
       Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76
(4), 482-488. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.482

Note: There is a registration agency,, where you may enter a DOI into the 'DOI resolver' search field to be directed to the article or to a link to purchase it.

Example of a Journal article with no DOI assigned:

Hager, M. H. (2007). Therapeutic diet order writing: Current issues and considerations. Topics in
       Clinical Nutrition, 22
(1), 28-36. Retrieved from

Note: If no DOI is assigned, APA asks you to locate the exact URL of the journal home page 'if your article was retrieved online' and is the 'copy of record' (p. 199, 7.01 (3) in APA manual) Do not list the aggregate database URLs (ProQuest, EBSCO). Do not use page numbers if they are not available.


Thanks to Paul Blobaum, M.A., M.S., Associate Professor, University Library, College of Health and Human Services Librarian, Governors State University.

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