The population doesn't need to be human. In engineering, it is most often a problem or process.
I = Intervention, Inquiry, Investigation, Improvement
C = Comparison
Current practice or opposing viewpoints
O = Outcomes
Measuring what worked best
Asking the Searchable Question
PICO Question | Physical Education
The hypothesis or problem statement is not searched completely as stated. Most searches will focus on the problem (P) and the Improvement (I). When a comparison of two ways of doing things (C) is needed, that part becomes the 3rd concept in your search strategy. The results or outcome is not part of the search strategy.
To get up to speed on your topic you need the "who, what, where, when, why or how"
Background | Five Ws
Who or What equals Population, Problem or Process
How or Why equals Intervention, Investigation or Improvement
When equals Special conditions
Example: How can identifying the distance dominant eye improve shooting success? (applies to skeet shooting, archery, basketball, hockey, golf, tennis, and other sports requiring aiming)
Ask broad topical question and read to:
build knowledge base.
identify trending facts, issues, cutting edge research
lay foundation for asking focused research question
Foreground | PICO
Example: How is [P] aiming impacted when a player has a dominant distance eye for the opposite hand is [I] retrained to improve [O] shooting success?
Formulate research question using PICO to:
identify research elements related to topic
select keywords representing those elements
retrieve relevant research articles when PICO keywords appear in TI,AB
The ASU Library acknowledges the twenty-three Native Nations that have inhabited this land for centuries. Arizona State University's four campuses are located in the Salt River Valley on ancestral territories of Indigenous peoples, including the Akimel O’odham (Pima) and Pee Posh (Maricopa) Indian Communities, whose care and keeping of these lands allows us to be here today. ASU Library acknowledges the sovereignty of these nations and seeks to foster an environment of success and possibility for Native American students and patrons. We are advocates for the incorporation of Indigenous knowledge systems and research methodologies within contemporary library practice. ASU Library welcomes members of the Akimel O’odham and Pee Posh, and all Native nations to the Library.