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Citation Styles

Help with different citation styles including how to format citations.

Using These Examples

The examples provided are the most commonly cited types of sources such as books, articles in journals, magazines & newspapers, and miscellaneous sources including conferences, web pages, media & other electronic resources. These have been updated to reflect the 9th edition of MLA Style.


Book, Print – One Author
Gaiman, Neil. Neverwhere. BBC Books, 1996.

Book, Print - Two Authors:
Foody, Amanda, and Christine Lynn Herman. All of Us Villains. Tor Teen, 2021.

Book, Print - Three or More Authors:
Clayton, Dhionelle, et al. Blackout. Quill Tree Books, 2021.

Electronic Book:
Edmundson, Mark. Self and Soul: A Defense of Ideals. Harvard University Press, 2015. EBSCOhost.

Edited Book:
Shilling, Dan, editor. Conversations on Community. Arizona Humanities Council, 2003.

Chapter in an Edited Book:
Ross, Colin. "The Story of Grey Owl." Fiction/Non-Fiction: A Reader and Rhetoric, edited by Garry Engkent and Lucia Engkent, 2nd ed., Thomson Nelson, 2006, pp. 327-333.

Chapter in Book with Same Author: 
Mance, Ajuan Maria. “Sarah Mapps Douglass.” Before Harlem: An Anthology of African American Literature from the Long Nineteenth Century, University of Tennessee Press, 2016.

Subsequent Edition:
Greig, Anne D., et al. Doing Research with Children: A Practical Guide. 3rd ed., SAGE, 2004.

Corporate Author:
Mayo Clinic. The Mayo Clinic Diet. Good Books, 2013. 

Reference Book - No Author
Dictionary of Literary Characters. Chambers, 2004. 

Reference Book, Single Entry, Multi-volume
Nash, William R.  “Harlem Renaissance.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature, edited by Jay Parini and Philip W. Leininger, vol. 2, Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 147-153. 

Reference Book, Single Entry, Two Authors and Edited
Barrere, Cynthia, and Colleen Delaney.  “Complementary and Alternative Modalities.” Understanding Medical-surgical Nursing, edited by Linda S. Williams and Paula D. Hopper, F.A. Davis Company, 2011. Credo Reference, 

Anthology or Compilation
Tharpe, Jac, ed. Frost, Centennial Essays III. G.K. Hall, 1982.

Work in an Anthology
Feld, Rose C., “Robert Frost Relieves His Mind.” Essays on Robert Frost, edited by Philip L. Gerber, G. K. Hall, 1982.

Edited Collection of Another Author
Frost, Robert. The Poetry of Robert Frost, edited by Edward Connery Lathem. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969. 

Journals, Magazines and Newspapers

Scholarly Journal Article (print)
Hattenhauer, Darryl. “The Politics of Kurt Vonnegut’s ‘Harrison Bergeron.’” Studies in Short Fiction, vol. 35, no.4, 1998, pp. 387-392. 

Scholarly Journal Article (online with DOI):

Bouhlila, Sadok. “Kurt Vonnegut’s Slaughterhouse-Five: A Reappraisal, or, ‘There Is “Something” Intelligent to Say About a Massacre.’” Studies in the Literary Imagination, vol. 53, no. 1–2, 2020, pp. 85–103, 

Scholarly Journal Article (web, online without DOI):
Ohmann, Ronald. “Teaching a Large Course On Contemporary Fiction.” Radical Teacher, vol.123, 2022, pp. 7–11. Alt Presswatch.

Magazine Article (print):
Baker, Aryn, and Madeline Roache. “Turn the Tide.” TIME Magazine, vol. 196, no. 3/4, July 2020, pp. 46–55. 

Magazine Article (online from database):
Eliaz, Isaac. “The Good Digestion Guide.” Better Nutrition, vol. 74, no. 1, Nov. 2013, pp. 38-42. Academic Search Ultimate,

Magazine Article (online):
Kezar, Adrianna, and Samantha Bernstein. “Adjunct Professorships Hurt Students and Educators Alike. Is it Time to Abandon Tenure?” Salon, 30 June 2016,

Newspaper Article (print)
Garner, Dwight. “These Letters Will Not Stuff Your Eyes With Wonder.” New York Times, 19 Dec. 2023, p. C2.

Newspaper Article (online from database):
Ingraham, Christopher. “Creators Peak in their Early 30’s to Late 40’s.” Arizona Republic, 27 June 2016, pp. D3. ProQuest,

Newspaper Article (online from web):
Young, Molly. “It’s My Party and I’ll Read if I Want To.” New York Times, 19 Dec. 2023. 

Other Types of Sources

Physical Film or DVD:
Everything Everywhere All At Once. Directed by Daniel Kwan and Daniel Scheniart, performances by Michelle Yeoh, Ke Huy Quan, Stephanie Hsu, James Hong, and Jaime Lee Curtis, A24, 2022. 

Online/Streaming Film:
Wendell & Wild. Directed by Henry Selick, performances by Keegan Michael-Key, Jordan Peele, and Angela Bassett. Netflix Animation; Monkeypaw Productions; Gotham Group, 2022. Netflix,

Online Video:
“Binging with Babish: Home Alone Special.” YouTube, uploaded by Babish Culinary Universe, 21 Dec 2022,

Film, Database (no author)
The Other Side of the Taj Mahal: Treasures of the Indus. BBC Worldwide Learning, 2015, Films on Demand.

Art Work:
Bearden, Romare. The Train. 1975, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Conference Paper (published):
Progovac, Ljiljana. "What Use is Half a Clause?" The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference (EVOLANG7), Barcelona, Spain, 12-15 March 2008. Edited by Andrew D.M. Smith, et al., World Scientific, 2008, pp. 259-66.

Conference Proceedings:
Elufiede, Oluwakemi, and Bonnie Flynn, editors. “Adult and Higher Education in the Contemporary World: Its Role in Cultural Literacy.” Conference Proceedings of the Adult Higher Education Alliance 35th Annual Conference, Orlando, March 10-11, 2015. Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse, 2015.

Sound Recording (physical or online):
Good Kid. “No Time to Explain.” Good Kid 3, Good People Recording, 2023. CD.
Frozen Soul. “Encased in Ice.” Bandcamp, 

Page on a Website
Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili.” eHow,

Entire Website:
“Lasting Damage: Why Cleanup is Essential to Tackle Microplastics,” 14 Nov. 2023,

Personal Communication or Interview:
Smith, Bob. “Re: Holiday Cookie Recipes.” Received by Syn Smith. 4 May 2015. Email. 
Doe, James. Opinions on Educational Opportunities and Student Debts.” 30 June, 2017. Phone interview. 

Legal or Law Citations:
For students or scholars working outside the legal profession, MLA recommends following the MLA format template to cite laws, public documents, court cases, and other related material. When citing legal works, document the version of the work consulted, not the canonical version of the law as in Harvard Bluebook legal style. What's included in the citation depends on the amount of information provided.

Note: Always italicize court case names, both in the body of your paper as well as in your citations.

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