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History Resources covering North America, Europe, Africa and the Middle East

Primary Sources Available on the Internet


Archives & Primary Sources - General

AMDOCS Documents for the Study of American History
One of several sites listed here that provides full text of documents from the 15th Century on, arranged in chronological order.

American Memory: Historical Collections for the National Digital Library.
A rapidly growing collection of documents, photographs, sound recordings, motion pictures and maps. Some of the collections now available are: Pioneering Women; African American Perspectives; California Gold; Civil War Photographs; America in the Great Depression; and many others in the Library of Congress.

Avalon Project at the Yale Law School (3,000 BCE+)
Selected digital documents relevant to the fields of Law, History, Economics, Politics, Diplomacy and Government.

100 Milestone Documents
The following is a list of 100 milestone documents, compiled by the National Archives and Records Administration, and drawn primarily from its nationwide holdings. The documents chronicle United States history from 1776 to 1965.

Core Documents of U.S. Democracy "To provide American citizens direct online access to the basic Federal Government documents that define our democratic society, a core group of current and historical Government publications is being made available for free, permanent, public access via the GPO Access service" The preceding quote from the Core Documents web page clearly delineates that this is an admirable attempt by the U.S. government to make available those documents and records it considers integral to an understanding of democracy in the United States. A comprehensive and important site.

Digital History This site includes: a U.S. history e-textbook; over 400 annotated documents, primary sources on slavery, Mexican American and Native American history, and U.S. political, social, and legal history; short essays on the history of film, ethnicity, private life, and technology; multimedia exhibitions, an audio archive including speeches and book talks by historians, and a visual archive with hundreds of historical maps and images. The site's Ask the HyperHistorian feature allows users to pose questions to professional historians.

Documenting the American South
A collection of sources on Southern history, literature and culture from the colonial period through the first decades of the 20th century. Provides access to digitized primary materials that offer Southern perspectives on American history and culture.

Chronology of US Historical Documents
This site from the University of Oklahoma College of Law provides U. S. Historical documents from the Magna Carta to the present.

Foreign Relations of the United States
This State Department web site is a permanent electronic archive of information released prior to January 20, 2001. See for material released since President George W. Bush took office on that date. Online volumes available cover the Truman through Johnson administrations(1945 - 1968).

The Historical Text Archive
The oldest and one of the most important meta-history archives.

History Matters: Many Pasts: "Contains almost 1,000 primary documents in text, image, and audio about the experiences of ordinary Americans throughout U.S. history. All of the documents have been screened by professional historians and are accompanied by annotations that address their larger historical significance and context. Arranged by time period, starting with the earliest documents."

Hypertext on American History from the colonial period until Modern Times - Documents
A collection of documents from the Magna Carta to George W. Bush's inaugural address(2001).elating to the history of the United States

Making of America(Cornell University); Making of America( University of Michigan)
(1800-1925 ) Full text of primary sources in American social history from the antebellum period through reconstruction. Particularly strong in the subject areas of education, psychology, American history, sociology, religion, and science and technology. This is actually two separate sites with separate resources -- one site is sponsored by The University of Michigan and the other by Cornell University.

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)
The National Archives web site includes descriptions of NARA facilities; copies of publications such as finding aids; and some Federal records regulations. The agency is working to improve access to the contents of the archives and this site should become increasingly valuable.

Perry-Casteneda Library Map Collection: Historical Maps of the United States. The categories used by the University of Texas map library are early inhabitants, exploration and settlement, U.S. territorial growth, later historical periods, military history, historical maps of Texas and U.S. cities, and national historic sites. There is a link to other map sites.

Repositories of Primary Sources
A listing of over 2700 websites describing holdings of manuscripts, archives, rare books, historical photographs, and other primary sources. Coverage is worldwide.

Resources for the Study of International Relations and Foreign Affairs - Vincent Ferraro site: An excellent comprehensive site covering US international relations and foreign affairs during the Twentieth Century. Click on the Documents internal link to go directly to that section. Document Library a list of letters, speeches, documents, web sites, books, and articles on signifcant people and events in American political thought and history. Rather than being a comprehensive list of available resources, it is meant to be a list of the best resources available on the given subject. Covers the Colonial period to the Modern era ( up to selected addresses of George W. Bush.)

US Congressional Documents: A Century of Lawmaking, 1774 - 1875: One of the major collections in the American Memory website, this invaluable (but hard to find) site includes all major congressional documents for the country's first century. The four main categories are: The Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention; Journals of Congress; Debates of Congress; and States and Documents.

Franklin D. Roosevelt Library Digital Archives: A growing body of presidential and personal papers related to the FDR presidency. Included are the President's Secretary File(PSF); British & German Diplomatic files; US-Vatican Diplomatic files, Fireside chats; and the Hackett Papers.

The Holocaust History Project: The Holocaust History Project is a free archive of documents, photographs, recordings, and essays regarding the Holocaust, including direct refutation of Holocaust-denial. Another resource for documents on the Holocaust, Israel & Zionism & Jewish Communities is the Academic Guide to Jewish History.

HyperWar: A Hypertext history of the Second World War "This project is a collection of material related to the (primarily military) history of the Second World War, completely cross-referenced via hypertext links and enhanced, where appropriate, by various multi-media computer technologies."

World War I Document Archive: This archive of primary documents from World War I has been assembled by volunteers of the World War I Military History List (WWI-L). The archive is international in focus and intends to present in one location primary documents concerning the Great War. Also worth looking at is: World War I: Trenches on the Web.

World War II Resources "Primary source materials on the Web"

Civil Rights Documentation Project - A Mississippi site which includes transcripts of oral history interviews, a civil rights timeline, and bibliography.

Cold War International History Project This site contains transcribed primary sources on the history of the Cold War. Many of the items are from original or compilations from previously inaccessible sources in the former Communist world.

Declassified Documents Reference System - US (1941-1992) (Access through ASU Library)
Includes full text of declassified U.S. government documents. Covers nearly every major foreign and domestic event from the end of World War II through the 1970s: the Cold War, Vietnam, foreign policy shifts, the civil rights movement, etc.

Free Speech Movement Archives. The link takes you directly to a list of pages and primary sources documenting the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley. This is the only way to get an idea of the extent and scope of this site's holdings.

National Security Archive An independent non-governmental research institute and library located at The George Washington University, the Archive collects and publishes declassified documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act. The Archive also serves as a repository of government records on a wide range of topics pertaining to the national security, foreign, intelligence, and economic policies of the United States.

Parallel History Project on NATO and the Warsaw Pact - provides documentation about the development of NATO and the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War. This site and the Cold War International History Project provide materials documenting the activities of the US' partners and adversaries during the long cold war struggle.

The Vietnam Archive "The Vietnam Archive mission is to collect and preserve the documentary record of the Vietnam War.... The Vietnam Archive currently administers two projects, the Oral History Project and the Virtual Vietnam Archive. More information about both of these project can be found in their respective sections of this website."

Yahoo - U. S. History The 1960's
The first place to start for a search of Internet sites for U. S. History. Particularly useful for tracking down sites with primary sources. Its hierarchical arrangement is as close to a library as one gets on the web. The 1960's page contains individual website links as well as the following categories: 1960 Presidential Election; 1964 Presidential Election; Baby Boomers; Civil Rights Movement; Cuban Missile Crisis; Hippies; and Vietnam War.

American West

Archives of The West: The resources page from the website "New Perspectives on The West". This site is an outgrowth of the Ken Burns' PBS special, The West.

Arizona Archives Online An online description to archival materials. Includes finding aids from the various special collections of Arizona State University, University of Arizona and Northern Arizona University

Colorado Plateau: Canyons, cultures and environmental change "This website provides an introduction to the environmental history of the Colorado Plateau. It summarizes a vast body of research from multiple disciplines"

Mountain Men and the Fur Trade: "These documents are accounts of the Rocky Mountain fur trade during the first half of the 19th century. Most of these are either primary or secondary historical sources, and have been transcribed from printed or manuscript form."

Online Archive of California. An excellent site that provides access to several important California collections covering among other topics the Free Speech Movement, Japanese-American Relocation, and California oral histories.

Trails of Hope: Overland Diaries and Letters, 1846 - 1869 Builds upon the overland trail diaries and letters found in the rich collections of the L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Lee Library, Brigham Young University; Special Collections, Marriott Library, University of Utah; and Special Collections, Merrill Library, Utah State University. The years 1846-1869 are significant, representing the Mormon exodus from Nauvoo, Illinois, the joining of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads at Promontory Point, Utah, and the ending of the overland pioneer era.

Video Histories of Arizona Jewish Residents: “The collection of Video Histories of Arizona Jewish Residents consists of short video interviews of notable Jewish residents in the Greater Phoenix area. Important subjects such as Anti-semitism, family life, business, religion, and the vitality of the Phoenix Jewish community are discussed in the interviews. Subjects share memories which span from Arizona's admittance to the Union up until the collection's creation in 2008-2009. This collection was produced by the Arizona Jewish Historical Society with funding from the Jewish Community Foundation of Greater Phoenix. Additional funds were provided by the Jewish Federation of Greater Phoenix. Contributed by Arizona Jewish Historical Society.”

WestWeb: "WestWeb is a topically-organized website about the study of the American West..."

Yahoo - U. S. History - 19th Century - American West
The first place to start for a search of Internet sites for U. S. History. Particularly useful for tracking down sites with primary sources. Its hierarchical arrangement is as close to a library as one gets on the web.

Civil War

Some of the best sites for the United States deal with the Civil War. See also Documenting the American South.

The American Civil War Home Page
Links to hundreds of resources, including timelines, overviews, images, letters, accounts and diaries, bibliographies, state studies, specific battles and rosters. A good place to start any search for Civil War information.

American Civil War Resources: Civil War materials from the Digital Library & Archives, Virginia Tech Libraries containing letters and diaries from both Union and Confederate soldiers, homefront letters, memoirs, and contemporary research files.

Causes of The Civil War: "This site was founded with the intent of collecting copies of or links to as many primary documents from the period of the secession crisis as is reasonably possible, with the goal of shedding light on the causes of secession, hence of the war."

Civil War Newspapers (Access through ASU Library) This database is from ACCESSIBLE ARCHIVES FULL-TEXT DATABASES. It contains the full text of major articles gleaned from over 2,500 issues of The New York Herald, The Charleston Mercury and the Richmond Enquirer, published between November 1, 1860 and April 15, 1865. Included are descriptive news articles, eye-witness accounts and official reports of battles and events, editorials, advertisements and biographies. A great effort has been made also to include articles which describe other than military concerns of the day.

Civil War Women: Primary Sources on the Internet: A webpage sponsored by Duke University Special Collections Library containing diaries, letters and photographs.

Secession Era Editorials Project Currently contains newspaper editorials about the following seminal events: the Nebraska bill debates, Dred Scott, and John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry, and the attack on Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner by South Carolina representative Preston Brooks.

The U.S. Civil War Center (Louisiana State University)
A collection of web links to indexes, letters, diaries, museums, discussion groups, newspapers, university archives, and Web-accessible documents. The 'historic places' portion leads to information on battlefields, cemeteries, forts, and historic sites.

The Valley of the Shadow: Living the Civil War in Virginia and Pennsylvania
Text and documents dealing with two communities: Chambersburg, Pa., and Staunton, Va. project attempts to find ways to learn about and portray people who left no records other than a few lines in the census, court records and newspapers. Links to related readings available elsewhere on the Internet.

The War of the Rebellion: Both The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (1880 - 1901) and the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion (1894 - 1922) are available full text online at Cornell University's Making of America site. These are obviously two of the most significant civil war resources.


African American History (Historical Text Archive)
A variety of sources are listed here, including: texts of important books and documents; biographical sketches of historical figures; bibliographies; mailing lists; bulletin boards; and many links to other internet sources.

African American History - - Primary Text Index Writings and documents by and about African-Americans

Africans in America
This is an excellent site for resources and primary source materials. It is divided into four segments: The Terrible Transformation, 1450 - 1750; Revolution, 1750 - 1805; Brotherly Love, 1791 - 1831; and Judgment Day, 1831 - 1865

Anti-Slavery Literature Project The goal of the Antislavery Literature Project is to increase public access to a body of literature crucial to understanding African American experience, US and hemispheric histories of slavery, and early human rights philosophies. These multilingual collections contribute to an educational consciousness of the role of many antislavery writers in creating contemporary concepts of freedom.

Universal Black Pages
Created originally through the efforts of members of the Black Graduate Students' Association at Georgia Tech Univeristy, this is a comprehensive collection of pointers to subjects related to the "African Diaspora."

From Slavery to Freedom: The African-American Pamphlet Collection, 1824-1909
Presents 397 pamphlets from the Rare Book and Special Collections Division, published from 1824 through 1909, by African-American authors and others who wrote about slavery, African colonization, Emancipation, Reconstruction, and related topics. The materials range from personal accounts and public orations to organizational reports and legislative speeches. Among the authors represented are Frederick Douglass, Kelly Miller, Charles Sumner, Mary Church
Terrell, and Booker T. Washington.

American Slave Narratives: An Online Anthology
From 1936 to 1938, over 2,300 former slaves from across the American South were interviewed by writers and journalists under the aegis of the Works Progress Administration. These former slaves, most born in the last years of the slave regime or during the Civil War, provided first-hand accounts of their experiences on plantations, in cities, and on small farms. This web site provides an opportunity to read a sample of these narratives, and to see some of the photographs taken at the time of the interviews. The entire collection of narratives can be found in George P. Rawick, ed., The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1972-79).

African-American Women: Online Archival Collections
A select collection of primary source materials from the Special Collections Department at Duke University.

Black Studies Center (Access through ASU Library)

(1827+) Black Studies Center combines several invaluable resources for research and teaching in Black Studies: Schomburg Studies on the Black Experience, International Index of Black Periodicals (IIBP), and The Chicago Defender, ProQuest Dissertations for Black Studies (1970-2004), and Black Literature Index (1827-1940). Resources are fully cross-searchable and include scholarly essays, recent periodicals, historical newspaper articles, and supporting materials.

Malcolm X: A Research Site This is a comprehensive website on the life and legacy of Malcolm X.

 Native Americans

Native American Documents Project
Texts of documents about the history of federal policy concerning native peoples. Primarily 19th century documents

Internet Sacred Text Archive - Native Americans: "This site is a freely available archive of electronic texts about religion, mythology, legends and folklore, and occult and esoteric topics. Texts are presented in English translation and, in some cases, in the original language."

Relations between the United States and Native Americans: The Avalon Project
This link is to one of the major collections on The Avalon Project. Among other documents it includes a complete list of treaties.


Yahoo - U. S. History - Women's History As one can now tell, this subject guide is inclined to begin any internet search on the appropriate Yahoo subject page.

American Women's History: A Research Guide American Women's History provides citations to print and Internet reference sources, as well as to selected large primary source collections. The guide also provides information about the tools researchers can use to find additional books, articles, dissertations, and primary sources.

Cornell University Witchcraft Collection The Cornell University Library Witchcraft Collection is an online selecton of titles from the Cornell University Library's extensive collection of materials on Witchcraft. The Witchcraft Collection is a rich source for students and scholars of the history of superstition and witchcraft persecution in Europe.

Defining Gender Online: 1450 - 1910 (Access through ASU Library) This database brings together approximately 50,000 images of original manuscript and printed material. Ephemeral material such as ballads, cartoons and pamphlets are featured alongside diaries, advice literature, medical journals, conduct books and periodicals. Structured into five sections, the following are currently available: Section I: Conduct and Politeness - Available; Section II: Domesticity and the Family - Available

Five Colleges Archives Digital Access Project This Web site provides access to digitized versions of archival records and manuscript collections relating primarily to women's history -- particularly women's education at the Five Colleges.

National Women's History Project The National Women’s History Project Learning Place is designed to provide you with information and educational materials about multicultural women’s history.

WestWeb: Making it on Their Own This section (use link on right hand index frame) of WestWeb provides information about Women in the West.

Women and Social Movements in the United States: 1600 - 2000 (Access through ASU Library) This database contains: 52 document projects that interpret and present documents, altogether these document projects provide more than 1,250 documents, 450 images, and 500 links to other websites. 19,000 pages of documents pertaining to Women and Social Movements. These materials have been selected by the Editors for their relevance to the focus of the website.

Women in the 19th Century: Matilda Joslyn Gage Website This site intends to be the most comprehensive collection of links on women in the 19th century on the net.

Women Working, 1800 - 1930 One of Harvard's Open Collections Program, this site focuses on women's role in the United States economy and provides access to digitized historical, manuscript, and image resources selected from Harvard University's library and museum collections. The collection features approximately 500,000 digitized pages and images including: 7,500 pages of manuscripts; 3,500 books and pamphlets; and 1,200 photographs.


USMA Digital Collections The U.S. Military Academy Library maintains extensive documentation of the history of West Point, the U.S. Military Academy, and Academy alumni. These rich historical collections include extensive book, manuscript, and photograph holdings among other formats.

Veteran's History Project The Veterans History Project relies on volunteers to collect and preserve stories of wartime service. Our primary focus is on first-hand accounts of U.S. Veterans from the following wars: World War I (1914-1920); World War II (1939-1946); Korean War (1950-1955); Vietnam War (1961-1975); Persian Gulf War (1990-1995); and Afghanistan and Iraq conflicts (2001-present). n addition, those U.S. citizen civilians who were actively involved in supporting war efforts (such as war industry workers, USO workers, flight instructors, medical volunteers, etc.) are also invited to share their valuable stories.

The War Times Journal Archives "features rare and unusual on-line editions of military memoirs, headquarters dispatches, correspondence (not personal writings, but "correspondence" between officers and command groups) and eyewitness accounts."


Eurodocs: Primary Historical Documents from Western Europe
This site (Harold Lee Library, Brigham Young University) has pointers to documents and full text works for Medieval and Renaissance Europe, Europe as a region, and over twenty countries.The time frame is Medieval to the present. The section for Germany includes a broad range of documents, from the 95 theses of Martin Luther to the 1990 treaty on German unification and some contemporary reports on racism.

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook The goal here is to provide and organize texts for use in classroom situations. Links to the larger online collections are provided for those who want to explore further. Areas covered are: Pre-History; Ancient Middle East; Egypt; Israel; Persia; Greece; Hellenistic World; Rome; and late Antiquity. Internet Medieval Sourcebook This site performs the same function for Medieval History as the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook does for its field. It forms part of ORB: Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies, which contains an encyclopedia, bibliographies and other specialized reference works. Internet Modern History Sourcebook Presents a diversity of texts available on the Internet in the area of modern European history and modern Western Civilization. Designed to serve the interests of teachers and students in college survey courses in subjects such as: the Reformation; Ancien Regime; Industrial Revolution; American and French Revolutions; Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment; The World Since 1945.

Internet Library of Early Journals A collection of digitized journal texts from six 18th and 19th century journals from the UK. The six titles are: Annual Register, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, The Builder, Gentleman's Magazine, Notes and Queries and Philosphical Transactions of the Royal Society.

The Labyrinth: A World Wide Web Server for Medieval Studies
The Labyrinth is a global information network providing free access to electronic sources in medieval studies through a WWW server at Georgetown University. It provides connections to databases, services and electronic texts and images, as well as bibliographies and directories of medieval studies organizations.

Moving Here Moving Here explores, records and illustrates why people came to England over the last 200 years and what their experiences were and continue to be. It offers free access, for personal and educational use, to an online catalogue of versions of original material related to migration history from local, regional and national archives, libraries and museums.

Victoria Research Web: "The VRW is dedicated to the scholarly study of nineteenth-century Britain, and to aiding researchers, teachers, and students in their investigations..."


Internet Modern History Sourcebook
This site forms one of the three "parent" sourcebooks of the Internet History Sourcebooks which are collections of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts compiled under the direction of Paul Halsall of Fordham University. One of the many sub-sourcebooks of this site deals specifically with the Russian Revolution.

Soviet History/Marxist History/Marxist Internet Archive
This excellent web page of the larger site “Marxist History” includes links to information concerning the Soviet state and Russian Revolution as well as to the full text archive of significant Marxist writers.

Yahoo - History - Russian Revolution
Particularly useful for tracking down sites with primary sources. Its hierarchical arrangement is as close to a library as one gets on the web.

The ASU Library acknowledges the twenty-three Native Nations that have inhabited this land for centuries. Arizona State University's four campuses are located in the Salt River Valley on ancestral territories of Indigenous peoples, including the Akimel O’odham (Pima) and Pee Posh (Maricopa) Indian Communities, whose care and keeping of these lands allows us to be here today. ASU Library acknowledges the sovereignty of these nations and seeks to foster an environment of success and possibility for Native American students and patrons. We are advocates for the incorporation of Indigenous knowledge systems and research methodologies within contemporary library practice. ASU Library welcomes members of the Akimel O’odham and Pee Posh, and all Native nations to the Library.